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High-Sugar Diet Impairs Brain Clearance

A high-sugar diet causes insulin resistance in the brain, reducing neuronal debris removal. How badly can this increase neurodegeneration risk?
raspberry, sugar, spoon

Researchers led by Mroj Alassaf at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in the United States have discovered a link between obesity and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Using the common fruit fly, the research shows that a high-sugar diet — a hallmark of obesity — causes insulin resistance in the brain, which in turn reduces the ability to remove neuronal debris, thus increasing the risk of neurodegeneration. Publishing in November’s open access journal PLOS Biology, the research will impact therapies designed to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.

Although obesity is known to be a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, exactly how one leads to the other remains a mystery.

The new study focused on answering this question by taking advantage of the similarity between humans and fruit flies.

Sugar’s Connection to Neurodegeneration

Having previously shown that a high-sugar diet leads to insulin resistance in the peripheral organs of flies, the researchers now turned to their brains.

Specifically, they examined glial cells because microglial dysfunction is known to lead to neural degeneration.

Levels of the protein PI3k indicate how much a cell is able to respond to insulin.

The researchers found that the high sugar diet led to reduced PI3k levels in glial cells, indicating insulin resistance.

Impaired Debris Removal

They also looked at the fly equivalent of microglia, called ensheathing glia, whose primary function is to remove neural debris, such as degenerating axons.

They observed that these glia had low levels of the protein Draper, indicating impaired function.

Further tests revealed that artificial reduction of PI3k levels led to both insulin resistance and low Draper levels in ensheathing glia.

Can’t Remove Degenerating Cells

Finally, they showed that after actually damaging olfactory neurons, the ensheathing glia could not remove the degenerating axons in the flies on the high sugar diet because their Draper levels did not increase.

The authors add, “Using fruit flies, the authors establish that high-sugar diets trigger insulin resistance in glia, disrupting their ability to clear neuronal debris. This study provides insight into how obesity-inducing diets potentially contribute to the increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders.”


Source:

Reference:

  • Mroj Alassaf, Akhila Rajan. Diet-induced glial insulin resistance impairs the clearance of neuronal debris in Drosophila brainPLOS Biology, 2023; 21 (11): e3002359 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3002359
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JezMyOpinion
JezMyOpinion
November 24, 2023 2:03 pm

This is what I’m having the most trouble with as I have a mean sweet tooth.

Edited by:
B. Berger

B. Berger

This site was inspired by my Mom’s autoimmune dementia.

It is a place where we separate out the wheat from the chaffe, the important articles & videos from each week’s river of news. With a new post on Alzheimer’s or dementia appearing on the internet every 7 minutes, the site’s focus on the best information has been a help to many over the past 15 years. Thanks to our many subscribers for your supportive feedback.

The site is dedicated to all those preserving the dignity of the community of people living with dementia.

Peter Berger, Editor

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This site was inspired by my Mom’s autoimmune dementia.

It is a place where we separate out the wheat from the chaffe, the important articles & videos from each week’s river of news. With a new post on Alzheimer’s or dementia appearing on the internet every 7 minutes, the site’s focus on the best information has been a help to many over the past 15 years. Thanks to our many subscribers for your supportive feedback.

The site is dedicated to all those preserving the dignity of the community of people living with dementia.

Peter Berger, Editor

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